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Russia is one of the largest producers and exporter energy in the world. According to IEA Statistics in the year 2008, total energy production reached approximately 52.4 EJ (total primary energy supply in 2008 was around 28.7 EJ) . According to different sources, renewable energy represents around 1% of the totally produced energy. Undeveloped infrastructure, low?density of population and relatively low prices for fossil sources of energy (gas, oil and coal) are reasons for low utilization of renewable energy.
In Russia, the use of renewable energy sources (excluding large hydropower, > 25 MWe) is negligible. Annually, with the use of renewable energy sources Russia produces no more than 8.5 TWh of electrical energy (excluding hydropower stations with installed capacity of over 25 MW). The installed electricity production capacity from renewable energy sources is less than 2,200 MW (excluding large hydropower stations) .
Biomass/biogas (61.8 % of total electricity production) around 5.2 TWh and small hydro power (33.3 % of total electricity production) around 2.8 TWh are the most important renewable sources of electricity in Russia. Almost the same situation is with heat power generation; only 3% (?0.25 EJ in 2008) of common heat is generated with renewable energy and bioenergy sources usage. It is worth noting thatthe major part of the heat power produced with renewable energy sources is manufactured at private (decentralized) boiler stations. By the end of 2008, the municipal (centralized) boiler?stations produced 0.02 EJ of heat power with renewable energy using . This figure illustrates distribution of heat energy generation by different renewable sources.
The wood pellet production in 2009 was around 900 thousand tones. The major part of Russian pellets is exported to EU countries. Export data are different in various sources. According to Eurostat, in 2009 Russia exported 380,000 tons of pellets and 310,000 tonnes of briquettes to EU countries. According to other research agencies and experts, export in 2009 was approximately 500,000?600,000 tones. The internal wood pellet consumption is growing; recent data from different sources range from 100,000 to 250,000 tones annually. Major internal consumers are private customers, but recently some municipal boiler?houses have been transferred from gas to pellets. Figure 2.43 presents average data of production volume and export of wood pellets in recent years.